LIFE SCIENCES AND HEALTHCARE
The life sciences comprise the science involving the scientific study of living organisms
The life sciences comprise the fields of science that involve the scientific study of living organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, animals, and human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics. Health care (or healthcare) is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans.
Life Sciences & Healthcare
Health care is delivered by practitioners in allied health, dentistry, midwifery-obstetrics , medicine, nursing and other care providers.
The study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs on human beings.
Biochemists study the elements, compounds and chemical reactions that are controlled by biomolecules.
Organic chemistry is a scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials.
Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements.
Life Sciences and Healthcare
2) Pharmacodynamics: the study of the cellular and molecular interactions of drugs with their receptors. Simply “What the drug does to the body”
3) Pharmacokinetics: the study of the factors that control the concentration of drug at various sites in the body. Simply “What the body does to the drug”
4) Pharmaceutical toxicology: the study of the harmful or toxic effects of drugs.
5) Pharmacogenomics: the study of the inheritance of characteristic patterns of interaction between drugs and organisms.
6) Pharmaceutical chemistry: the study of drug design to optimize pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and synthesis of new drug molecules (Medicinal Chemistry).
7) Pharmaceutics: the study and design of drug formulation for optimum delivery, stability, pharmacokinetics, and patient acceptance.
8) Pharmacognosy: the study of medicines derived from natural sources.
2) Biochemistry – Biochemistry is the chemistry of life. Biochemists study the elements, compounds and chemical reactions that are controlled by biomolecules (such as polypeptides, polynucleotides, polysaccharides, lipids and chemical messengers) and take place in all living organisms.
3) Biomedicine – Biomedicine (i.e. Medical biology) is a branch of medical science that applies biological and other natural-science principles to clinical practice. Biomedicine is related to the ability of humans to cope with environmental stress. The branch especially applies to biology and physiology. Biomedicine also can relate to many other categories in health and biological related fields.
4) Bionics – Bionics (also known as bionical creativity engineering) is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology.
5) Biophysics – Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science using methods of, and theories from, physics to study biological systems. Biophysics spans all levels of biological organization, from the molecular scale to whole organisms and ecosystems. Biophysical research shares significant overlap with biochemistry, nanotechnology, bioengineering, agrophysics, and systems biology.
6) Biotechnology – Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, medicine, and genetic engineering.
7) Botany – Botany, also called plant science(s) or plant biology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist is a scientist who specializes in this field of study.
8) Cell biology – Cell biology (formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, “contain”) is a scientific discipline that studies cells – their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division and death.
9) Chronobiology – Chronobiology is a field of science that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar and lunar related rhythms.
10) Computational biology – Computational biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, behavioral, and social systems.
11) Conservation biology – Conservation biology is the scientific study of the nature and status of Earth’s biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.
12) Ecology – Ecology is the branch of science that studies the distribution and interactions between living things and the physical environment.
13) Genetics – Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms, as well as the medical practice of diagnosing, treating, and counseling patients with genetic disorders. Humans began applying knowledge of genetics in prehistory with the domestication and breeding of plants and animals.
14) Geobiology – Geobiology is an interdisciplinary field of scientific research that explores interactions between the biosphere and the lithosphere and/or the atmosphere.
15) Gerontology – Gerontology is the study of the social, psychological and biological aspects of aging.
16) Marine biology – Marine biology is the scientific study of organisms in the ocean or other marine or brackish bodies of water.
17) Medicine – Medicine is a branch of health science concerned with maintaining human health and restoring it by treating disease and injury; it is both an area of knowledge, a science of body systems and diseases and their treatment, and the applied practice of that knowledge.
18) Microbiology – Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, today, work is largely done within the disciplines of biochemistry and genetics.
19) Molecular biology – Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. The field overlaps with other areas of biology, particularly genetics and biochemistry.
20) Morphology – Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
21) Mycology – Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine (e.g., penicillin), food (e.g., beer, wine, cheese, edible mushrooms), and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection.
22) Neuroscience – Neuroscience is a field of study which deals with the structure, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology and pathology of the nervous system.
23) Nutrition – Nutrition is the selection of foods and preparation of foods, and their ingestion to be assimilated by the body.
24) Paleobiology – Paleobiology is a growing and comparatively new discipline which combines the methods and findings of the natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology.
25) Physiology – Physiology is the branch of science that describes the mechanisms of cell, tissue and organ function in organisms.
26) Radiobiology – Radiobiology is the study of the response of biological tissues to ionizing radiation.
27) Soil biology – Soil biology is the study of microbial and faunal activity and ecology in soil.
28) Structural biology – Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules, especially proteins and nucleic acids, how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function.
29) Systems biology – Systems biology is an academic field that seeks to integrate different levels of information to understand how biological systems function.
30) Zoology – Zoology is the study of the biology of animals.
2) Organic chemistry – Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
3) Inorganic chemistry – Inorganic chemistry is the study of the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds (carbon based compounds, usually containing C-H bonds), which are the subjects of organic chemistry.